Configuration Environment of SAP S/4HANA Cloud Warehouse Management
SAP S/4HANA Cloud provides a large number of features to support the business of your company. Some of these features require settings in the configuration environment of SAP S/4HANA Cloud to be fully utilized for your company. Manage Your Solution or SAP Central Business Configuration is used as a configuration environment of SAP S/4HANA Cloud.
New customers are automatically connected to SAP Central Business Configuration.
For customers who are running on a configuration environment based onManage Your Solution, a step-by-step conversion to SAP Central Business Configuration is planned. Customers will be informed about the conversion. Existing configuration will not be changed by the move to the new configuration environment. After the conversion, you will be able to use SAP Central Business Configuration to change your existing settings or do any future configuration.
For the configuration setup using SAP Central Business Configuration, please refer to the corresponding unit in this training.
This lesson focuses on the configuration steps based on Manage Your Solution, as this is the approach currently used in the training environment.
Please note, that this lesson will not detail the system landscape setup, but focus on the configuration settings required for setting up your warehouse management system.
Configuration with Manage Your Solution
The appManage Your Solution supports you to carry out the following tasks:
- Implementation: SAP offers you pre-configured solutions with SAP Best Practices, which you can explore based on demo data before adapting and launching them. The implementation process is performed in several phases. For each phase the system is newly set up by the SAP Service Center team. The app Manage Your Solution offers the specific functions for the current phase.
- Change: When your solution is running in production mode, you can configure changes in the quality (Q) system and deploy them to the production (P) system.
The Configure Your Solution app included in the Manage Your Solution app supports you in adapting pre-configured SAP Best Practices Processes to your business needs.
It is structured as follows:
Application area: functional area of a company that represents a specific area of accountability (here: Supply Chain) . The application area contains sub application areas.
Sub Application Area: sub part of the functional area (here: Warehouse Management). The sub application area contains configuration items.
Configuration Item: grouping of configuration steps (example: Master Data).
Configuration Step: flexible configuration step that helps you to adapt a pre-configured SAP Best Practices process for SAP S/4HANA Cloud (example:Maintain Storage Types). Configuration steps correspond to a Self-Service Configuration User Interface (SSCUI). SSCUIs ensure that SAP can do quarterly configuration upgrades without overriding your changes.
Following types of SSCUIs are available:
- Web GUI SSCUIs
- FIori SSCUIs
The UI is slightly different in appearance but is used in a similar way. You can display the SSCUI type in the configuration steps view with the Settings button.
SSCUIs usually restrict what values you can use as a key in a new record. The namespace restrictions can vary by SSCUI. Generally, many SSCUIs adopt the standard that you can only use keys that start with:
- S, Q, R, X, P , Y for character fields
- 5,6,7,8,9,0 for numeric fields
Using the Configure Your Solution App
The Configure Your Solution app offers you the following advanced information:
Using the Configure Your Solution App
|Field||Values and Meaning||Value at configuration item level|
Via the status (values Open or Confirmed) you can see which (mandatory) configuration steps still need to be completed before you can proceed with the next project phase.
You can still change the configuration after confirming.
Set to Confirmed if all mandatory configuration steps in the configuration item are confirmed.
If one configuration step in the configuration item is mandatory, the configuration item becomes mandatory too.
The app lists whether the configuration steps in the configuration item are global, country-/region-dependent or localized.
A unique ID (number) that you can use in your project documentation. You can also search for configuration steps using the ID.
The configuration item also has a unique ID.
Actions on Configuration Step Level
With the functions in the dropdown list of each configuration step, you can perform the following actions:
Configure: Open the configuration step and start the configuration.
Configuration Help: Access the Web GUI SSCUI documentation for this configuration step. See below how to access documentation for Fiori SSCUIs.
Add Comment: Add a comment about why configuration was done. Available comments are displayed below the list.
Download Comments: Download all comments that have been entered for this configuration step in PDF format.
Change Logs: In the change view of the configuration step a change log is available for individual Web GUI SSCUIs..
Basic configuration options for Warehouse Management
The following section gives you an overview of the most important configuration options available in SAP S/4HANA Cloud Warehouse Management.
Define Warehouse Numbers:
A warehouse complex is mapped as a warehouse number, which you can use to identify the warehouse complex. An essential factor for defining a warehouse number is the physical location. A warehouse number summarizes storage types and storage bins that are organized and managed together.
All operations in warehouse management, such as putaway or stock removal of products, are always executed within a warehouse number.
The warehouse used in the training environment is 1050. No new warehouse numbers need to be created.
After having defined your warehouse number you have to assign warehouse numbers from Logistics Execution, which have three digits, to the warehouse numbers in Warehouse Management, which have four digits. You can assign more than one warehouse number from Logistics Execution to the same warehouse number in Warehouse Management.
The warehouse number from Logistics Execution assigned to the warehouse 1050 is the number 105. No changes are required to run the training exercises. This step has already been maintained.
SAP Logistcs Execution-SAP Warehouse Management Warehouse Linkage
To create the link between Inventory Management in the SAP Logistics Execution (LE) system and SAP Warehouse Management, you maintain certain configuration settings in the SAP LE system. These settings allow the system to determine warehouse management relevancy based on the plant and storage location information in source documents such as inbound and outbound delivery documents. These settings are also used to determine the SAP WM warehouse used for processing. The following figure illustrates the basic organizational relationships in a plant-storage location assignment that were established through the configuration settings:
Availability Group and Stock Types
In a warehouse that manages stock of one plant and one storage location, you define one availability group, which represents the plant and storage location, and assign it to all stock types of the warehouse.
If your warehouse manages stock in several storage locations, you need an availability group for each storage location.
If you keep stock in the goods receipt zone separate from stock in final bins in terms of availability, you define two availability groups, each representing one storage location. You assign each availability group to a set of stock types. In the goods receipt zone, you manage stock in stock types of one availability group. In final storage types, you manage stock in stock types of the other availability group. When you confirm putaway warehouse tasks, the system automatically posts the stock from the stock type of one availability group to the corresponding stock type of the other availability group.
If you keep stock in production supply areas separate from stock in final bins, you also define an availability group, a set of stock types, and a storage location for the production supply areas.
In the training environment used, only one availability group is sufficient, as there is only one storage location managed in the internal warehouse.
You can use stock types to distinguish between stock that is unrestricted, blocked, or in quality inspection. An availability group must be assigned to a stock type and is used to manage the stock of a certain stock type in a specific storage location. If you want to assign multiple storage locations to a single warehouse, you must create several availability groups for use in the corresponding stock type for the storage locations.
The following standard settings are already prepared for your use:
- Availability group 001
- Stock types:
- F Unrestricted Use
- Q Quality Inspection
- B Blocked
- S Scrapping
If you want to manage stock for multiple storage locations in the same warehouse, you must define additional stock types in your warehouse. For this purpose, you must first create additional availability groups in the configuration activity Define Availability Group.
After you have created the stock types you must configure the mapping between storage locations and the warehouse using the configuration activity Map Storage Locations to the Warehouse.
Optionally, you can assign a stock type to a stock type group for putaway or to a stock type group for stock removal. For this purpose, you must first define stock type groups in the configuration activity Define Stock Type Groups before you can assign the group to the stock type. In a later step, you can make use of the stock type groups in your putaway and stock removal strategies.
Warehouse Number Control
You also have to define basic process control data at warehouse level that includes the controlling parameter for internal processes.
You define controlling parameters for the following processes:
- Replenishment: Definition of the default stock type to be replenished, and the control parameter to use the general replenishment process
- Physical Inventory: Definition of the default stock type to be used for physical inventory
- Others: Warehouse process types to be used in various processes, for example, a default warehouse process type at warehouse level that is to be used for repacking.
Here you define the standard weight unit, volume unit, currency and factory calendar to be used in the warehouse.
Configuration of storage types, storage sections, bin settings and activity area
Although the warehouse is already delivered with a rather simple warehouse structure it is possible and in most of the times mandatory to extend the structure to your own needs. Therefore you can create stroage types, storage areas, storage bins and so on. The following section describes each object and its major configuration setting in detail.
The warehouse structure in warehouse management is divided hierarchically and consists of the following elements:
- Warehouse number: The warehouse number is a four-character code that represents a single warehouse or warehouse complex.
- Storage Type: A storage type represents a physical storage area in an individual warehouse. The technical, spatial, and organization characteristics are set in the customizing settings.
- Storage section: Each storage type can be divided into one or more storage sections. Storage bins with specific common attributes, such as storage bins for fast moving items that are close to the goods issue zone, are assigned to one storage section.
- Storage Bin: In each storage type you have one or several storage bins. The coordinates of the storage bin indicate the exact position in the warehouse in which products can be stored.
- Activity area: An activity area is a logical grouping of storage bins. It can refer to a storage type, or it can represent a group of bins from several storage types. You can either assign storage bins manually to the activity areas, or if there is a 1:1 relationship between storage type and activity area, you can have the system generate the activity area and the assignment.
A storage type is a four-character code that can represent a variety of physical and logical areas within and outside the physical warehouse. The storage type is a physical or logical subdivision of a warehouse complex, which is characterized by its warehouse technologies, space required, organizational form, or function. A storage type consists of one or more storage sections and bins. The use of the storage type within the warehouse is indicated by the role code in storage type Customizing.
The storage type can be used in the following roles:
- Standard Storage Type: A standard storage type represents a physical area in the warehouse where products are stored according to a set of spatial and material handling strategies. SAP has preconfigured a number of standard storage types for different putaway rules. To make it easier for the user, several templates exists that correspond to certain business processes and putaway strategies like Fixed Bin Storage, Bulk Storage and General Storage.
- Staging Area Group: In this role, a storage type represents one or more staging areas in the warehouse. In staging areas you temporary keep products after you have unloaded a truck or before you load a truck.
- Work Center: A storage type with the Work Center role represents a physical area within the warehouse where certain processes take place such as deconsolidation, inspection, packing, or value-added-service processing.
- Work Center in Staging Area Group: This role is assigned to a storage type to represent a work center within a material staging area. This is for example used in the kit-to-stock process.
- Production Supply: The production supply role represents storage bins that are assigned to a production supply area (PSA), and used for material staging.
When accessing the detailed data, it is possible to make all types of changes to the putaway control, stock removal control and the goods movement control in general. For example, you can define in the Putaway Rules if you allow the addition to existing stock or not in a bin or how mixed storage is handled in the warehouse.
For standard storage types the system automatically creates indicators for putaway and stock removal that can be used in the material/ product master for the warehouse to define this storage type as target our source storage type.
In SAP S/4HANA Cloud Warehouse Management, a storage section is an organizational subdivision of a storage type that is represented by a four-character code. Storage sections contain storage bins that have similar attributes for putaway, such as heavy parts, bulky parts, hazardous materials, fast-moving items, or slow-moving items.
You can use storage sections during the determination of the bin for putaway. The definition of storage sections in a standard storage type is only required if you plan to use the storage section search in the storage type. But storage sections are also used to structure a storage type with roles like Work Center. Storage sections are required for storage types with the Staging Area Group role. The actual staging area is always a storage section inside such a storage type.
The smallest spatial unit in a physical warehouse is a storage bin. Storage bins represent the exact storage position of a product. A storage bin can be referred to as a coordinate (not to be confused with the geo-coordinate of the bin, which is also available in SAP EWM) because the address of a storage bin is often derived from a coordinate system,. For example, the coordinate 01-02-03 could be a storage bin in aisle 01, stack 02, and level 03. In SAP S/4HANA Cloud Warehouse Management, the bin coordinate is up to 18 characters in length and must be unique within the warehouse.
Storage bins are located within a storage type. The storage type represents a physical area in the warehouse, and controls how products are placed in and removed from the storage bins that are assigned to the storage type. The storage type may also be divided into storage sections due to handling and/or storage requirements of the products. Therefore, in Warehouse Management, the system represents the location of a product in a warehouse movement as a combination of the storage type, storage section, and bin.
Storage Bin Data
To each storage bin, you assign the warehouse number in which the storage bin is located, and a storage type. Note that the bin coordinate assigned to a storage bin must be unique within the warehouse.
You can also define the following additional attributes for a storage bin:
- Storage bin type: used to indicate relative size of bin and/or actual bin dimensions
- Storage section
- Bin access type: used to control how the bin is accessed by resources
- Verification: used to store the bin coordinate-related data used in RF scanning or for Pick-by-voice to verify that the correct bin is being accessed
- Geo-coordinates of storage bin: used by SAP S/4HANA Cloud Warehouse Management (WM) to compute distances between the bins in goods movements
- Capacity checking attributes (max weight, volume, total capacity): used to control the amount of product assigned to a bin
Storage Bin generation
In the configuration, you define the storage bin coordinate structure by assigning, first of all, a unique identifier to represent each of the following components of the bin coordinate:
- Bin subdivision
- Bin depth
You then use these identifiers to create a template used to generate the storage bin master record automatically. Only when using the identifiers properly, the aisle / stack / level information in the bin is correctly filed. The storage bin generation structure is shown in the following figure:
With the field Template you define which parts of the bin name are:
- N - numeric character
- A - alphabetic letter
- C - Constant characters (this includes also spaces)
The field Structure is for the identifiers above.
Bin x/ y/ z coordinates
The geo-coordinates of the bins are used to calculate the travel distances of resources and are an important part of the overall time calculation in warehouse orders. Defining the coordinates takes a little bit of effort when doing it for the first time. One thing is important to know for the coordinates as well as for the aisle / stack / level information defined by the identifiers: there are no mass maintenance transactions for these fields, only through the generation of the bins using a template this information is entered automatically correctly. When using the upload function for bins this information can be contained here as well, but especially defining the geo-coordinates is not simpler in a spreadsheet.
The coordinate of the bin is always a corner of the bin, the alignment describes how the bin is oriented around this corner. In the standard we assume that the coordinate is always the lower left corner of the bin, in that case the alignment is zero.
Staging areas are used for the interim storage of goods in the warehouse. They are generally located in close proximity to the doors of the warehouse. Here, the products are stored after unloading or before loading and where the goods receipt or goods issue posting is done.
An activity area represents a logical subdivision of the warehouse that groups storage bins based on defined warehouse activities.
Every movement or process you do in the warehouse has an activity. Examples for activities are:
- Physical Inventors
With the activity area and the assigned activity you control the size or volume of a warehouse order respectively the area in which a resource will work in the warehouse.
You define activity areas and assign them to storage bins. The assignment can be very broad, just by using the storage type, or more detailed, by using the aisle / stack / level information in the bin. An activity area can include just a small part of a storage type, but it can also stretch over more then one storage type.
In the picture below you see one storage type with several activity areas. The activity area AA10 is assigned to the complete storage type. It will be used for putaway and for express picking. In addition there are 5 smaller activity areas, which are only used for standard picking. That would mean that for putaway or for express picking resources could go to several bins in the different aisles, each processing one warehouse order. For standard picking one resource would process only tasks which are in the one aisle, while another resource could work in parallel in the same or in another aisle.
Activity Areas and Storage Bin Sorting
In addition to assigning bins to an activity area, you also assign a bin sorting sequence for each required activity. This sorting can be used to control the sequence of accessing the bins for a given process such as picking.
The bin sorting must be performed anytime there is an addition, change, or deletion to the storage bin master data or related activity areas.
A work center is a physical unit in the warehouse in which warehouse activities such as packing are performed. Structurally, the work center is assigned to a storage type and to a storage bin in this storage type. The storage type for the work center must have a storage type role of Work Center (E) or Work center in staging area (I). You can configure more than one work center for each storage type in the system. You can give several work centers the same inbound and/or outbound section. To create a work center, you must maintain configuration and master data settings in the SAP S/4HANA Cloud Warehouse Management system beyond the creation of the storage type that represents the work center.
Currently SAP S/4HANA Cloud for Warehouse Management (WM) only supports work centers for packing activities.
Which activity can be done in the work center, is controlled by the Work Center Layout, which includes a Transaction Type. The work center layout also controls what areas, tab pages in these areas, and icons are shown on the screen.
Work Center Structures
The following figure shows you an example of how you could structure a work center storage type:
Note the following points:
- Work center PAC1 represents a work center that has no inbound section and no outbound section.
- Work centers PAC2 and PAC3 represent work centers that have an inbound section but no outbound section.
- Work centers PAC4 and PAC5 represent work centers that have an inbound section and an outbound section.
An inbound section is used if there is more then one possible work center, but the specific work center can not be determined directly. This is usually the case, as a work center has no capacity. That means you can not control how much work is sent to a work center. The work centers share an inbound section, and the system sends the products or HUs into the bin of this inbound section. You then move the HU from the inbound section to the work center using drag and drop at the work center.
The outbound section is helpful when HUs have been processed, but have not been moved to the next storage type. By moving them to the bin in the outbound section, you know that they are not relevant for the work center anymore.