Introducing Real User Monitoring


After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

  • Describe how SAP Cloud ALM Real User Monitoring provides transparency regarding performance as experienced by end users

Main Features of Real User Monitoring

As the person responsible for technical support at Dreams without Limits, Scott knows from experience that it can be difficult to identify the root cause or bottleneck of performance issues. This is particularly true when running cross-system business processes (such as the Hire to Retire process at Dreams without Limits), involving systems and cloud services, such as SAP SuccessFactors, SAP S/4HANA Cloud and SAP Master Data Integration. He also knows that end users often experience a different runtime for their requests compared to what IT support can measure inside single components, as network times or frontend times are often hard to measure

In one of his next regular meetings with Carl, Scott asks Carl how SAP Cloud ALM for operations can help him to tackle this issue.

Real User Monitoring Allows to Understand Performance and Utilization from End User Perspective

Carl states that SAP Cloud ALM offers Real User Monitoring. He continues that the purpose of Real User Monitoring is to provide transparency about the usage (that is: executions) and the performance (that is: response times) of user interactions. This is achieved by performing measurements at both the frontend and the server side to identify the actual root cause of performance issues. The utilization of SAP Passport technology then allows for the correlation of monitoring data measured at the frontend, in the cloud service, and/or at the system side to analyze end-to-end user request flows.

How Does Real User Monitoring Work?

Scott is excited and wants to learn more about this. He therefore asks Carl to go into more detail.

How does Real User Monitoring work?

Carl states that SAP Cloud ALM does not require any agents to be installed, neither on one of the SAP systems nor on the frontend.

Then he starts explaining the process flow:

  • Whenever an end user is triggering a request, the (for example: http) data stream is enriched with an SAP Passport. This SAP Passport is then part of every communication between the different SAP systems involved and the end user.


    SAP Passport in this context is a correlation mechanism that uniquely correlates performance data from several technical components to one end-to-end request.

  • When the request is processed by an SAP system (for example, an SAP Gateway system), the system can read the information from SAP Passport and can locally store information (such as the time stamp or the unique ID from SAP Passport) and can add additional information (such as statistical records or which system is called next) during the execution of the request.


    In the case of SAP S/4HANA Cloud, public edition, the SAP Passport is used as well and information from the execution of the request can be retrieved via APIs and Web Services.

  • Both the passport information and the performance relevant information are frequently collected from the SAP systems and from the cloud services and sent to SAP Cloud ALM using either software component ST-A/PI (for on-premise systems) or Web Services and API (for cloud systems).
  • With the help of SAP Passport technology, within SAP Cloud ALM the data can be correlated from the single request to the complete request execution flow. SAP Cloud ALM can also aggregate the data which allows to make them available for a longer period and to show historical data in the Real User Management User Interface (UI). This UI data can be useful for Scott as IT Analyst to find the root cause of a specific performance issue the end user has experienced. From the data, Scott and Anna (acting as system administrator after the go-live) can also analyze which steps of the requests are executed on which technical component.

For a list of KPIs and supported solutions, see the Real User Monitoring Content page on SAP Support Portal.

Examples for the Hire to Retire Process at Dreams Without Limits

Scott is excited and makes a note that he needs to talk to Anna soon. But he wants to get some examples of how Real User Monitoring can be used at Dreams without Limits.

Examples for Real User Monitoring

Carl explains a usage scenario for Real User Monitoring:

  1. Scott can use the Overview page to identify services or request types with poor performance. For this, this page offers an overview of the performance metric for the services that are in scope by utilizing the Apdex (Application Performance Index).
  2. Then Scott may switch to the Request view to identify the single applications with poor performance or high usage.
  3. From there, he may switch to the request details to identify the time frame where the single requests have been executed with poor performance.
  4. Finally, Scott can enter the request flow to perform an analysis of the single request flow including all components that are involved in the execution.

Carl continues that, in addition, the Frontend Overview and the Backend Overview contain the most important frontend (or backend) usage and performance metrics.

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