Posting a Goods Receipt for a Purchase Order


After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

  • Post a Goods Receipt for a Purchase Order

Goods Receipt Processing

When goods are delivered against a purchase order, it is important that you enter this goods receipt with reference to the purchase order. When you record the receipt of goods, the system suggests all open items from the purchase order. This facilitates both the entry and checking of incoming goods. Among other things, you can check the following:

  • Has the right material been delivered?

  • Has the right quantity been delivered or whether there has been over or under delivery?

  • Are perishable goods within their minimum shelf life (the shelf life expiration date check must be active in this case)?

You can enter several goods receipt items against a purchase order item in one operation. This is advisable if the material is delivered in several batches or is distributed to several storage locations.

When you post a goods receipt with reference to a purchase order, the PO histories of the relevant purchasing document items are updated automatically. This enables the buyer to identify outstanding deliveries and urge the vendor to speed things up if necessary.

Effect of Goods Receipt (GR)

When you post the goods receipt to the warehouse or stores, the system generates a material document. This document contains information about the material delivered and the relevant quantity of the material. For stock items, the relevant plant storage location is recorded. If the GR is valuated, the system also generates an accounting document. This document contains the relevant general ledger accounts that were used to post the transaction as a result of the goods receipt.

You can enter several GR items against a PO item in one operation. You can do this if the material is delivered in several batches or if it is distributed to several storage locations.

When you post a GR for a PO, the system automatically updates the PO history tab in the line item details of the PO. This provides visibility regarding the status of the PO line item.

Valuated Goods Receipt

Stock Overview

Examples for Movement Types

When you enter a goods movement, you must choose a movement type. A movement type is a three-character key used to differentiate goods movements. Examples of goods movements are GR, GI, and transfer postings.

The movement type assumes important control functions in IM. It plays a central role in automatic account determination in the system. Together with other influencing factors, the movement type determines which stock or consumption accounts the system updates in Financial Accounting (FI).

The movement type also determines the screen layout for entering documents or updating quantity fields.

Among other things, the movement type controls the way goods are moved (goods issue (GI), GR, or transfer) and is an important tool used for account determination. SAP comes with a variety of movement types for the most frequently-used goods movements. You can customize other movement types, if necessary. Each movement type has its own cancellation movement type, which corresponds to the number of its movement type + 1.

Documents for Goods Movements

Material and Accounting Documents

The material and accounting documents for goods movement are created simultaneously. The material document consists of a document header and at least one item. The header information includes the posting date and the user ID of the person who created the document. The system records the quantity of the material posted to the storage location of a plant at line item level.

The accounting document records the effects of line material movements on the general ledger accounts. The document header contains applicable data, such as the document date, posting date, posting period, and document currency. The system records the GL account numbers and the associated amounts posted at the line item level.

The material and accounting documents are independent documents. You can identify the material document by the material document number and the fiscal year.

You can identify the accounting document uniquely using a combination of the following:

  • The company code

  • The accounting document number

  • The fiscal year

The system determines the company code based on the plant where the goods movement occurred.

Other Integration Points

In addition to the generation of Material (quantity) and Financial Accounting (value) documents, there are other integration points.

The other integration points are as follows:

  • Purchasing – updates the PO history

  • QM (if active) – creates an inspection lot

  • Warehouse Management (if active) – creates a transfer requirement, which in turn places the material in a warehouse

  • Generating output (for example, the GR slip or a pallet label)

  • Material Master - updates stock quantities and price in Accounting view

  • Material Ledger (if stock) - updates moving average price (MAP)

  • Management Accounting (if consumable) - clears commitment to account assignment object and posts actual costs

Post a Goods Receipt for a Purchase Order

Transfer Posting for Material

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