Using ODP_SAP DataSources

Objectives

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

  • Use ODP_SAP DataSources

Introduction

Scenario

As a consultant you are tasked to load SAP data from various modules into SAP BW/4HANA so that it is easier to make informed business decisions.

There are many ways to get SAP data into SAP BW/4HANA. When SAP ECC or other traditional SAP ERP suite products are involved, the most common way is to use SAP extractors.

You are looking for other approaches that aim to require minimal effort, provide high performance, and have delta-capabilities. Although Operational Data Provisioning (ODP) is not a new technology, it meets all those goals, and has been available with SAP Business Warehouse (SAP BW) for some time. What is new is that in previous releases, the use of ODP was optional and now it is mandatory if your source system is SAP ERP and your target system is SAP BW/4HANA.

Let's see how you can do it.

Operational Data Provisioning

Overview of ODP Source Systems in SAP BW/4HANA

There are multiple source system scenarios that use the technology of the Operational Data Provisioning Framework. Before explaining ODP_SAP in this unit, let's look at an overview of Operational Data Provisioning (ODP).

Operational Data Provisioning Overview.

In SAP BW/4HANA, Operational Data Provisioning is the central infrastructure for data extraction and data replication from SAP (ABAP) applications (ODP providers) to SAP BW/4HANA (ODP consumer). However, also other ODP consumers can be used (for example SAP Data Services).

The data in the source is available for extraction in the form of operational data providers. An operational data provider defines interfaces for transactional data and master data (attributes, texts, hierarchies). Once implemented for the repository in question, these interfaces make it possible to access data for SAP BW/4HANA. For the SAP repositories, there are corresponding providers for the operational delta queues.

The SAP BW/4HANA system that the data is transferred to, subscribes to these delta queues. For sources that can deliver data changes, the ODP framework also supports delta procedures. Once an SAP Repository has implemented the relevant interfaces of the ODP framework, it is available for data transfer with Operational Data Provisioning.

Operational Data Provisioning supports extraction and replication scenarios for various target applications and supports delta mechanisms in these scenarios. In addition, it allows data transfer out, with a service for extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL). To support the delta procedure, the data from a source is automatically written to a delta queue using an update process. The data can also be passed to the delta queue by using an extractor interface. DataSources are currently supported as providers that make the delta queue data available. The target applications (referred to as subscribers) retrieve the data from the delta queue and continue processing the data.

Operational Data Provisioning (ODP) uses the Operational Delta Queue (ODQ), which is located in the source system when using source systems ODP_SAP, ODP_CDS, ODP_SLT or ODP_BW. When you use ODP_HANA as a source system, the ODQ is positioned on the target system (SAP BW/4HANA).

Note
The ODQ is explained later in this unit.

Data Extraction from SAP Source Systems Using SAP Extractors

SAP Extractors as ODP Providers (ODP_SAP)

SAP BW/4HANA can extract data from an SAP application such as an SAP ECC system or SAP S/4HANA using SAP Extractors. These SAP Extractors can be used as ODP Providers.

The objects that represent the interface between the SAP source system and the ODP Framework are the DataSources (based on SAP Extractors) delivered by SAP, or generated by customers.

Loading into SAP BW/4HANA Based on DataSources - Classic Approach vs. ODP Approach

Data provisioning using ODP, based on SAP Extractors, is an alternative to the previous usage of DataSources from SAP source systems. Previous usage consisted of the standards SAP Service API and qRFC outbound delta queue (transaction RSA7). This classical Delta Queue is replaced in the SAP NetWeaver ODP framework by the ODP delta queue (transaction ODQMON).

Data provisioning using Operational Data Provisioning offers you the following advantages:

  • Communication between source and SAP BW∕4HANA system and the configuration of data transfer are simplified. In this way communication using synchronous RFC, ALE/IDocs is skipped and the data transfer is not controlled using the qRFC outbound queue.

  • The Operational Data Provisioning Framework with the operational delta queues takes over tasks and services that were previously covered by the Persistent Staging Area (PSA). The data transfer process (DTP) in particular can fetch data directly from the operational delta queues. InfoPackages and loading using the PSA are thus obsolete.

  • Delta data of the application can be retained for a definable time period in the operational delta queue and can then be requested for an according time period again by DTP.

  • The Operational Data Provisioning Framework uses a unique technology for different consumers of the source data, for example, SAP BW∕4HANA and SAP Data Services.

Source System ODP_SAP: The source system, ODP-SAP T41(400) is highlighted.

To use data provisioning using ODP based on SAP Extractors, a source system must be defined (ODP_SAP) with ODP Context SAPI.

Functions of the Service API Related to SAP DataSources

The service API (SAPI) interface is a collection of programs that are used to extract data to SAP BW and now SAP BW/4HANA. The service API, sometimes called the "plug in", is technically installed with a software component called PI_BASIS.

Many of the pieces of the service API are no longer used because the ODP technology of SAP NetWeaver made them obsolete. For example, the Operational Delta Queue, and transaction ODQMON replaces older monitoring transactions. That said, it is because of the service API that we have many pieces of the puzzle we still need. For example, the generic extractor logic (transaction RSO2) and the ability to extend (add fields) to DataSources is part of the SAPI set of programs.

The service API offers the following functions:

  • Control parameters for data transfer (SBIW).
  • Activating Business Content DataSources (RSA5).
  • Organizing DataSources in an application tree (RSA9).
  • Customizing/Extending DataSources (RSA6).
  • Generic DataSources (RSO2).
  • Details of DataSources (RSA2).
  • An extractor checker to simulate data extraction (RSA3).
  • More behind the scenes programs and functions, for example, for the delta logic.

Tasks Related to DataSources

To use ODP_SAP DataSources for data loads into SAP BW/4HANA, we consider the following tasks:

  • Working with the application component hierarchy.
  • Activating BI Content DataSources.
  • Releasing DataSources for ODP.
  • Replicating DataSources.

The Application Component Hierarchy

The Application Component Hierarchy.

In SAP ECC or SAP S/4HANA, all DataSources are grouped using a hierarchy of application components, the application component hierarchy, which has the following functions:

  • It organizes the delivered BI Content DataSources.
  • It is used to organize custom generic DataSources.
  • You can check the difference between the delivered and active versions of your BI Content objects.

Use transaction RSA9 to install SAP BI Content application components, RSA6 to add customer-defined application components, and RSA5 to activate SAP BI Content DataSources.

You may change the application component hierarchy, for example by creating extra nodes. When the tree structure has changed in the source system, it must be replicated to update the DataSources folder in SAP BW/4HANA.

How to Modify the Application Component Hierarchy in SAP S/4HANA and Replicate It to SAP BW/4HANA

To learn how to modify the Application Component Hierarchy in SAP S/4HANA and replicate it to SAP BW/4HANA, refer to the following demonstration.

Activation of BI Content DataSources

SAP Business Content (BI content) is a predefined collection of standard objects that are provided by SAP. As part of SAP BI content, DataSources represent the starting point when it comes to accessing data in other systems. Once you determine which DataSources you need, you can then activate them from either SAP BW/4HANA or directly in the source system. The advantage of performing the activation in SAP BW/4HANA is that you can activate other related data flow components at the same time, including the corresponding SAP ECC or SAP S/4HANA DataSource.

Activating a DataSource from the Source System

Installation of DataSource from Business Content.

The following steps are needed to activate a DataSource from SAP ECC or SAP S/4HANA:

  1. Go to Installation of DataSource from Business Content (transaction code RSA5).
  2. Select a DataSource.
  3. Choose Activate DataSource.
  4. Provide a transport request.

A typical business case to activate the DataSource in the source system directly is simply testing the DataSource. Start with a sandbox or development system.

Activating a DataSource from SAP BW/4HANA

Based on your business requirements and project implementation process, you determine what data you need and from where. For example, the new SAP HANA optimized content for New GL has delivered DataStore Objects (advanced), InfoObjects, and traditional DataSources. If you choose to activate a higher-level object in the BI Content section of RSA1 in SAP BW/4HANA, you can set the Grouping to include the data flow before. You need to select a source system, such as your SAP S/4HANA system.

For example, when you activate a DataStore Object (advanced) and its data flow before, the corresponding DataSource in this source system is activated automatically.

Data Warehousing Workbench: BI Content. The following buttons are highlighted: Bi Content, Grouping, Install. The 0FI_GL_14 checkbox is also highlighted.

The following steps are needed to activate a DataStore Object (advanced) and the related DataSource from SAP ECC or SAP S/4HANA:

  1. Go to transaction RSORBCT - Data Warehousing Workbench: BI Content  (or jump there from Data Warehousing Workbench: Modeling and then BI Content).
  2. Select the DataStore Object (advanced).
  3. Select source systems.
  4. Grouping as Data Flow Before.
  5. Select the DataSource.
  6. Install / Activate.

You may also need to log on to the remote system (SAP ECC or SAP S/4HANA) as the connection uses an "optional" dialog connection and if correctly configured, this dialog RFC uses "current user".

It takes the system a few minutes to perform the activation but once it is done, the objects are ready to use. To see the new activated content in your system, go to the BW Modeling perspective.

How to Activate an SAP DataSource in the Source System

To learn how to activate an SAP DataSource in the source system, refer to the following demonstration.

How to Activate an SAP DataSource from SAP BW/4HANA

To learn how to activate an SAP DataSource from SAP BW/4HANA, refer to the following demonstration.

Release of DataSources for ODP

To use an SAP ECC or SAP S/4HANA DataSource as ODP provider for SAP BW/4HANA, it must be released for ODP.

How are DataSources released for ODP in the source system? Let's learn this for the following DataSources:

  • Delivered Business Content DataSources
  • Generated SAP DataSources
  • Generic SAP DataSources

Delivered Business Content DataSources

  • Report BS_ANLY_DS_RELEASE_ODP (SAP Note 2232584.)

  • Conversion to SAP S/4HANA (automatic transformation, using substitute technologies such as ABAP CDS) (SAP Note 2500202.)

  • DataSources with delta processing V or D, for example 2LIS*, don’t have to be released.

Note
  • Export DataSources from classic SAP BW InfoProviders cannot be released.
  • Some DataSources are no longer supported. They've been substituted by the ODP_CDS framework, which you learn in another unit.

Generated SAP DataSources

  • Report BS_ANLY_DS_RELEASE_ODP in some cases (SAP Note 2232584.)

  • Report Z_1_CO_PA_EXPOSE_ODP for CO-PA (SAP Note 2203163.)

  • Report /SAPAPO/PAREA_EXT_EXPOSE for APO (SAP Note 2085981.)

Generic SAP DataSources

  • Automatic release for new DataSources (install SAP Note 2350464 - Creation of Generic DataSource in RSO2 - automatic release for ODP.)

    Note
    Pay attention to the restrictions that apply to the ODP release, as described in SAP Note 1932459 and SAP Note 2132462, for the hierarchy extraction.
  • Run the RODPS_OS_EXPOSE program manually to set the flag for several DataSources. These settings are transported.

    If you created a generic DataSource, just run the RODPS_OS_EXPOSE program, enter the DataSource name, and choose Display Releases. If it isn't listed, choose Release DataSource. Answer yes to the prompt, then enter a transport request if prompted. Then, the ROOSATTR table is updated (as exposed) for that DataSource.

  • You can manually enter X into field EXPOSE_EXTERNAL of table ROOSATTR (but then it is not automatically recorded on a transport request).

Installation of DataSource from Business Content.

You can apply OSS Note 1924334 to make the expose property visible in transaction code RSA5- Installation of DataSource from Business Content and RSA6 - PostProcess DataSources and Hierarchy.

How to Verify if DataSources are Released for ODP

To learn how to verify if DataSources are released for use with ODP, refer to the following demonstration.

Replication of ODP DataSources

ODP DataSources Replication: On the context menu, choose New, then DataSources.

DataSource metadata must be available in SAP BW/4HANA. This is called (metadata) replication. Replication communicates metadata from SAP ECC or SAP S/4HANA to SAP BW/4HANA, such as a change to the application component hierarchy.

Traditionally, DataSources were replicated to SAP BW from SAP ECC. However, with ODP, DataSources are made available to SAP BW or SAP BW/4HANA by exposing them as a so called Operational Data Provider. An Operational Data Provider can be used in one or more BW DataSources.

Replicating is still a good idea and is still possible for ODP Source Systems. If you decide to replicate, the created BW DataSource has the same name as the SAP ECC or SAP S/4HANA DataSource / Operational Data Provider. This naming convention is good practice, considering that usually there is only one BW DataSource pointing back to the same SAP ECC or SAP S/4HANA source.

If you are not replicating, use the context menu on the ODP source system and choose NewDataSource.

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