SAP Fiori is SAP's central, role-specific and intuitive user experience (UX), which runs on any device. You can use various UI technologies such as the SAPUI5 framework, UI5 Web Components, or the mobile iOS and Android SDKs to build SAP Fiori apps. As the SAP Fiori UX focuses on the individual user roles, new SAP Fiori apps are specifically created for individual roles. For example in Retail, there are apps for store associates, and for store managers.
The SAP Fiori launchpad (FLP) is a shell that hosts SAP Fiori apps, and it is the single point of entry for a user to access the assigned applications. After the log-in, the starting point for the user is the SAP Fiori Home view.
The SAP Fiori launchpad provides services such as navigation, personalization, embedded support, and application configuration.
Each user can individually configure their My Home area, to make it their personal start page. You can choose Open Help (? icon) to access the help topics as shown in the figure above, SAP Fiori Launchpad. By choosing your Profile (user initials icon), you can access the user actions menu.
For an easy, intuitive navigation in the SAP Fiori launchpad, a specific layout is used to arrange the SAP Fiori apps on the Home page. This role-based layout is defined centrally via the SAP Fiori Launchpad Designer (FLPD). Here, the relevant business catalogs are created, and their apps are assigned to spaces, pages, and sections accordingly, or arranged in groups (classic Home view). Via Settings, the user can switch between both layouts, and in case the layout with spaces is used, the user can decide if the My Home area should be shown or not. The personalization options under Settings are shown in figure, Maintain User Default Values, further down.
An entry in the top-level navigation indicates a Space. In the figure above, Spaces and Pages in SAP Fiori, for example Unit 2 is a space, as well as Unit 3, and so on.
Each space has one or multiple pages. A Page contains apps necessary for a self-contained work-context. For example, the Unit 5 space has 3 pages for the various store processes: Store Operations, Sales, and Physical Inventory.
A page may be further subdivided into sections. A Section structures the content of a page semantically. For example, the Store Operations page has the sections Analytics, and Extras, with reporting and supplementary apps.
A Tile allows users to quickly access a business application (app) to complete a specific task. In some cases, tiles can display live status indicators, such as the number of open tasks. Also, links can be embedded as tiles.
SAP provides space and page templates per business role for SAP S/4HANA, making it easy for customers to structure the layout of the SAP Fiori launchpad for their end users. This layout remains stable, even if a user is assigned to more roles later. Note: Users can easily personalize their pages, by adding or removing tiles, or adding or removing sections.
A space comes with a predefined set of apps related to the user’s business role. The idea is to show only the most important and most used apps per space that users need to complete their daily tasks. Users still can access all apps in the app finder which they might use to add apps to their pages or to directly launch apps that they rarely use.
Basically there are three different types of native SAP Fiori applications. The following figure, SAP Fiori Apps Overview, shows the transactional app, Order Products, the Retail Promotion object page, and the analytical Store Manager Overview app.
Transactional apps offer access to tasks such as change, create, display (documents, master records), or to entire processes with guided navigation. These apps use ABAP to provide the classic approach for functions of a business system. They are available for SAP S/4HANA and SAP Business Suite on any DB. The native, retail-specific transactional store operations apps are mobile optimized, and a number of them are also radio-frequency identification (RFID) enabled. Additionally, many classic SAP Retail functions can be embedded as (non-native) transactional apps using the WebUI, for example the Create -, Maintain -, and Display Article apps (SAPGui transactions MM41, MM42, MM43).
Object pages give you the opportunity to search and explore your data. They provide a 360 degree view on essential information about an object, and contextual navigation between related objects. Object pages use the Enterprise Search capabilities of SAP HANA to provide search results. They are available for SAP S/4HANA and SAP Business Suite on HANA. In Retail, object pages are provided for product, site, allocation table, and promotion.
Analytical apps provide insight to action. They give you a visual overview of complex topics for monitoring or tracking purposes. Analytical apps use the analytical capabilities of SAP HANA to provide insights into business data. They are available for SAP S/4HANA and SAP Business Suite on HANA. Examples are the Goods Movement Analysis, and the Material Documents Overview apps.
The above figure, Transactional Apps - Example, shows the native Manage Product Master Data app, and the WebGUI based Maintain Article app. Both apps can be used to edit Retail Article master data.
In many non-native transactional apps, you can use the F1 key to display explanations for fields, menus, functions, and messages. The F1 Help also displays technical information on the current field.
In one of the apps, you may need to activate the Performance Assistant first by choosing More → Help → Settings → F1 Help.
Using the F1 key in a native SAP Fiori app opens the Help Topics area. For example in the Manage Product Master Data app, it contains a link to the Application Help for this app.
There are input fields for free text entry, for example, to enter a name or description, and input fields with predetermined values. For example, in the article display function, the article number field has predetermined values. For these fields, the F4 Help displays information on the possible values. You can call the F4 Help using the F4 keyboard key, or, after positioning the cursor on the input field, choose the button which appears right next to the selected field. If there is a small red asterisk at the field description, it is a required or mandatory field, and you can only continue working in this application if you enter a permitted value in this field. By using different transaction and screen layouts, or in Customizing, the user can define many fields as required or optional, hide fields, or enter default values and make the fields invisible (suppress the field).
The F4 Help displays a list of possible entries for a field. If there is a large number of possible entries, an additional selection screen is displayed first. If the results list is very large, the F4 Help only displays the maximum number of entries specified by the user on the F4 Help tab under Help → Settings. The default value is 500. The F4 Help is available both in native and non-native apps.
The Navigation Buttons are as follows:
Back (arrow pointing to the left in the SAP Fiori Header): With this button you return to the previous screen (one step back). The corresponding keyboard key is F3.
Exit (pushbutton in the Header Toolbar): With this button you can exit the function/screen. Pushing this button may also mean closing the session, or even exiting the system (if you press it in the SAP Easy Access menu of the only open window). The corresponding keyboard keys are Shift+F3.
- Save (pushbutton in Footer bar): Saves the transaction, for example this creates or changes a purchase order (transactions ME21N, ME22N). In some applications, the button is called Post instead of Save. The corresponding keyboard keys are Ctrl+S. Note: Some native Fiori apps for example use Submit or Create instead of Save, and some don't require saving at all, as in this case, the entries are saved automatically.
Additional screen elements:
Tab pages: These group several subscreens to provide a clear layout.
Checkboxes: With checkboxes within a field group, you can select several options at the same time.
Other screen elements include Input fields and pushbuttons. If there is a little red asterisk at the description of an input field, it means that this is a required/mandatory field.
The User Actions menu as shown further above in figure, SAP Fiori Launchpad, not only allows the user to edit the pages to adjust the arrangement of tiles, but also offers the Settings menu. Here, for example, the user can choose the layout. Other settings include selecting the background color, or setting the preferred date and time formats, and so on.
In many cases, setting user default values makes the daily work easier. The system defaults these values in the relevant applications, so the user doesn't have to key in those values every time. This is for example particularly useful for certain organizational elements in various business areas, such as purchasing, sales, finance, and so on. More details on organizational elements will be provided at the beginning of the next unit, Basic Concepts.
If a user has personalized the Home page, and a central change is applied to the apps - for example, a new app has been centrally added to the user’s role - then the affected tile group has to be refreshed. Otherwise, the changes are not available for this user.