Explaining Standard Operations

Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

  • Explain how to perform operations on SAP systems and their infrastructure with SAP Landscape Management

Standard Operations

Operations can be triggered on two different levels: affecting one instance or a whole system.

Standard operations in an Instance affects single instances such as an additional application server and database. Standard operations in a system affect the whole system (a set of instances) and stop the system (stop everything, for example databases and CI).

To access the SAPUI5 screen choose, OperationsOperations.

The following steps occur in the server, SAP, and database instances during preparation:

Server
  • Binds virtual host names of an instance or a set of instances to network interfaces.

  • Mounts remote memory locations to the local file system.

SAP

Register and start the instance agents using SAPSTARSRV.

Database instances
  • Attaches the database instance to the host and start the database listener.

  • Registers the database with the operating system.

This operation can only be executed on adaptively enabled systems.

When preparing and starting systems and instances, you bind the virtual host names of an instance, or a set of instances, to network interfaces, mounts remote memory locations to the local file system, and starts the system.

The following steps occur when preparing and starting systems and instances for database instances:

  • Writes the respective service entries, if not present (if database instances were unprepared using SAP Landscape Management).

  • Attaches the database to the host. That is, registers the database with the operating system.

  • Starts the database listeners, if necessary.

The following steps occur when preparing and starting systems and instances for SAP instances that do not represent a database:

  • Writes the respective service entries if not present (if an SAP instance was unprepared using SAP Landscape Management).

  • Registers the instance agent with the operating system.

    • For Unix-like systems, adds the agent to the file /usr/sap/sapservices.

    • For Windows systems, adds the agent to the Windows service registry.

    • Starts the instance agent.

This operation can only be executed on adaptively enabled systems.

In Detail: Perform Standard Operations — Preparing and Starting Systems and Instances

  • For SAP instances that do not represent a database:

    • If an SAP instance was unprepared using SAP Landscape Management, writes the respective service entries if not present.

    • Register the instance agent with the operating system.

    • Start the instance agent.

  • For custom instances:
    • Call operation ACC__ATTACH.

    • Perform the necessary actions to register the instance on the host.

    • Start the instance or the set of instances.

*This is only for adaptive enabled systems and instances.

Starting Systems and Instances

You can start the system without prepare (for non AC installed) system by starting your database and application server. Prepare is not necessary for non AC installed systems SAP Landscape Management does not touch mount points or virtual host names.

You start an instance or a set of instances. When you start an SAP system, the following occurs:

  • You start the logical database.

  • One or more application server instances (ABAP or JAVA).

  • Central services (such as a message server and enqueue server).

  • Optional components (such as TREX and live Cache).

You restart an instance or a set of instances for example, in case of or after a power failure. During a restart, SAP Landscape Management stops the instance and sets the status to Not Running, and Start starts the instance or the set of instances and sets the status to Running.

Stopping Systems and Instances

You can stop an instance or a set of instances. You stop all instances not representing a database such as PAS and ASCS (for example, enqueue and msg. server). You also stop all databases.

SAP Landscape Management performs a hard shutdown for all non-database instances and a soft shutdown for databases with default configurations. A hard shutdown ignores open database connections and stops an instance immediately. A soft shutdown checks for open database connections and cancels the operation if any database connection is open.

To change the default settings choose SetupSettingsEngine.

In Detail: Perform Standard Operations — Stopping Systems and Instances

Stop OperationsDescriptions
Stop

Stops an instance.

Possible shutdown options include the following:

  • Soft shutdown

  • Hard shutdown

Forced stop

Stops an instance while ignoring intersystem and intrasystem dependencies.

You can perform a forced stop also for instances with status Unknown.

Possible shutdown options include the following:

  • Soft shutdown

  • Hard shutdown

Graceful shutdown

Stops an ABAP application server instance in the timeout specified and informs all logged users of shutdown.

In Detail: Perform Standard Operations — Stopping Systems and Instances

Shutdown OptionDescription
Soft shutdown

Checks for open database connections.

If any database connection is open, cancels the operation.

Default option for database instances.

Hard shutdown

Ignores open database connections and stops an instance immediately.

Default option for instances not representing a database.

You can also unprepare systems and instances. During an unprepare operation, you unmount remote memory locations from the local file system and unbind virtual host names from network interfaces.

For SAP instances, you stop and unregister the instance agent.

For database instances, you detach the database and stop the database listeners.

This creates the configuration file for the next prepare operation.

You can also use a combination of stop and unprepare to unmount mount points, unbind host names, stop and unregister instance agents, and detach databases and stop databases listeners which creates the configuration file for the next prepare operation.

This is only available for adaptively installed systems.

This stops an instance, unmounts remote memory locations from the local file system and unbinds virtual host names from the network interfaces. The SAP Host Agent executes the program CLEANIPC by default during the unprepare operation.

By default, the SAP Landscape Management performs a soft shutdown for database instances and a hard shutdown for other instances not representing a database.

When stopping and unpreparing systems and instances, Stop, stops the instance. Unprepare, for database instances, unregisters the database from the operating system, detaches the database from the host (that is, stops the database listeners, if necessary), and creates configuration files required for an attach process during a prepare operation. For SAP instances that do not represent a database, Unprepare stops the instance agent and unregisters the instance agent from the operating system.

When stopping and unpreparing systems and instances for custom instances, Unprepare performs necessary actions to unregister the instance on the host, calls operation ACC__DETACH, no processes of the custom instances are running, unbinds virtual IP addresses or unmounts the file systems configured, calls the storage adapter or virtualization adapter to unprepare the IP addresses, and receives service port bindings needed for an attach operation.

Relocating Not Running Systems and Instances

Using the Relocate allows you to relocate an instance, or a set of instances, from one host to another, either physically or virtually, in either direction. The operation retains the status of the instances. Instances that are not running are unprepared and prepared. You can relocate instances either on the entire system or on an individual instance. You can flexibly decide if you want to relocate only one host (for example, in the case of a host outage) or relocate all hosts in the system (for example, in the case of a system scale up). Relocate is a combination of unprepare and prepare.

This is only available for adaptive installed systems.

Relocating Not Running Systems and Instances

To relocate systems and instances that are not running, you must unprepare.

For database instances, Unprepare unregisters the database from the operating system, detaches the database from the host (that is, stops the database listener, if necessary), and creates configuration files required for an attach process during a prepare operation.

For SAP instances that do not represent a database, stop the instance agent and unregister the instance agent from the operating system.

For custom instances, perform necessary actions to unregister the instance on the hose, calls operation ACC__DETACH, no processes of the custom instances are running, unbinds virtual IP addresses or amounts the file systems configured, calls the storage adapter or virtualization adapter to unprepare the IP addresses, receives service port bindings needed for an attach operation.

On a new host, relocating calls the storage adapter, or the virtualization adapter, to prepare the IP addresses, binds virtual IP addresses, mounts the file systems configured, and prepares.

For database instances the following occurs, and if necessary:

  • Writes the respective service entries if not present (if database instances were unprepared using SAP Landscape Management).

  • Attaches the database to the host (that is, registers the database with the operating system).

  • Starts the database listeners, if necessary.

You can also relocate non-running systems and instances.

For SAP instances that do not represent a database the following occurs:

  • Writes the respective service entries, if not present (if an SAP instance was unprepared using SAP Landscape Management.

  • Registers the instance agent with the operating system.

  • Starts the instance agent.

For custom instances the following occurs:

  • Calls operation ACC__ATTACH.

  • Performs the necessary actions to register the instance on the host.

This is only valid for adaptive enabled systems and instances.

Relocating Running Systems and Instances

You can also relocate running systems and instances. You can relocate an instance or a set of instances from one host to another, either physically or virtually in either direction. This operation retains the status of the instances, running instances are stopped, unprepared, and started. The difference with relocating not running systems and instances is that running instances, or sets of instances are stopped before they are unprepared or prepared and after they are unprepared or prepared the instance, or set of instances, are started.

When relocating running systems, running instances are stopped, an unprepare is executed from old hosts, a prepare is executed on new hosts. Instances, or sets of instances are started and instances are moved to bigger hardware. This operation is a combination of unprepare and prepare and it is only available for adaptive installed systems. The system or instances are not online during the whole operation.

Switching to Not Running Status

You can also switch a system to status Not Running. Depending on the initial status of the system this either stops the instances (if the system status is set to Running) or prepares instances (if the system status is set to Initial).

Rolling Kernel Switch (RKS)

The rolling kernel switch (RKS) allows a new kernel to be imported into an ABAP system or specific parameter changes to be activated while the system runs. The following are advantages of RKS:

  • Keeps any adverse effects on business operations to a minimum when importing a new kernel version.

  • Ensures at least one application server instance is always available for business operations during the RKS procedure.

  • Enables you to import new kernel versions without any system downtime due to the other in which individual instances are restarted.

  • It is available in the SAP Landscape Management screen by choosing OperationsOperationsSystems.

General Information for RKS:

  • The system defines the order in which the application server instances are restarted.

  • The SAP Start Service of the application server instance specified as the last instance to be restarted monitors the entire RKS procedure and triggers the restart of the individual instances.

  • Restarts the ASCS instance is performed and monitored by the SAP Start Service of the ASCS instance.

  • There are two monitoring SAP Start Services for RKS.

The following is the order in which the instances are restarted when using the RKS:

  1. The enqueue replication server.

  2. The ASCS instance.

  3. The application server instances are restarted in the order specified beforehand.

  4. The instance defined as the last one is restarted together with its start service as the last of all instances with the new kernel version.

  5. The RKS procedure is completed with this final step.

Installing the License for ABAP Post-Copy Automation

When installing the license for ABAP Post-Copy Automation you can use the task list, SAP_INSTALL_PCAI_ENT to install the SAP Landscape Management, enterprise edition license for using ABAP post-copy automation (PCA).

You can download SAR PCAI_ENT 100 (License file of ABAP Post-Copy Automation) to activate the transaction STC01.

You must extract the SAR archive to the directory that is assigned to the profile parameter DIR_TRANS.

In the ABAP system, PCAI_ENT, is imported manually via SAINT.

To Install the License for ABAP Post-Copy Automation:

  1. Retrieve the .SAR archive corresponding to your SAP NetWeaver release from SAP Software Download Center.

  2. Extract the archive .SAR to the directory that is assigned to the profile parameter DIR_TRANS. To find the extracted file, .PAT, refer to the directory, EPS/in.

The advantage is that SAP Landscape Management enables you to import the license parallel in different systems.

Using Graceful Shutdown

To Use Graceful Shutdown:

  1. Choose OperationsOperations.
  2. Choose system or instance.
  3. Choose Graceful Shutdown.
  4. Specify the timeout in seconds.
  5. Specify the graceful threshold in seconds.

The timeout specifies the time left until an application server instance will be stopped. If this time is exceeded, all users are automatically logged out and any running applications are closed.

After the time specified is reached, a system message indicating the time will be sent.

RFC Operations - Getting Users Logged On

During Remote Function Call (RFC) operations you can display all users logged on to the application server. To do this you must configure the RFC destinations and have the authorization to call up the corresponding transaction, SM04. A dialog box displays the SAP username of the users logged on to the application server.

RFC Operations - Creating System Messages

The figure, In Detail: Perform Standard Operations — RFC Operations - Creating System Messages, shows the screens for creating system messages. To create system messages, choose OperationsOperationsInstances.

You can create a system message to send important information to the users of an SAP system. You can choose to create the message for all users on all application servers, or only for the users logged on to a particular application server. A system message is displayed to the users only once. Users who are in the process of logging on to the system see the message just after they have been logged on. Users who are already logged on see the message as soon as it is sent. Users must actively confirm system messages before they can continue working.

The following table provides additional information for operation parameters:

RFC Operations - Creating System Messages

Field/CheckboxDescription
Send to all AS

To create a system message for all application servers running, select this checkbox.

To create a system message only for the application server currently selected, keep the checkbox deselected.

Message

Enter the text of the message. The message text has a maximum of length of three lines.

Expiration Date

Set the date after which the message will no longer be displayed to users.

Expiration Time

Set the time after which the message will no longer be displayed to users.

Deletion Date

Specify the date when the system message will be deleted.

Deletion Time

Specify the time when the system message will be deleted.

Language

Specify the language, if required.

Client

Select a specific client, if required, If you enter nothing or an asterisk (*), the message will be sent to all users logged on to this system (regardless of the client).

RFC Operations - Listing System Messages

During RFC operations, you can display the active system messages. To list system messages, choose OperationsOperationsInstances. A dialog box displays the active messages.

RFC Operations - Managing Logon Groups

You can manage logon groups, that is a group of SAP system instances. You can create and delete group entries, remove instances from groups, and delete entire logon groups.

When a user logs onto a logon group, the message server directs the user to the server of this group that has the lightest load. SAP Landscape Management allows you to do the following:

  • Create and delete group entries.

  • Remove instances from groups.

  • Delete entire logon groups.

Each SAP application has different resource requirements therefore some applications may require more servers and logon groups. To make changes choose OperationsOperationsInstances. You can select existing logon groups and the instances assigned to the, or enter the name for a new logon group to be created.

RFC Operations - Getting Active Batch Jobs

You can retrieve information on active background jobs. To do this, choose OperationsOperationsInstances. A dialog box displays information on active background jobs.

RFC Operations - Getting System Information

You can retrieve information on specific systems, such as the System ID (SID), Release (for example, SAP_BASIS 750), Installation number, information on specific components such as the release and the Support Package level (for example, PCAI_ENT). To do this choose OperationsOperationsInstances.

Saving Operations as Template

You can save an operation as a template to execute operations at a later point in time on systems, instances hosts (or pools). To do this choose Operations and MaintenanceOperationsInstances or Systems, or Hosts.

Once you have chosen your operation, choose Save as template and you can then schedule the template under Automation StudioSchedule. You can manage your template under Automation StudioOrchestrate.

Managing Hosts in the Landscape

You can manage hosts in the landscape. You use this to centrally manage computing hosts such as physical servers in the landscape. It allows you to view details of all the available hosts in the adaptive computing landscape, for example, bound hose names and operating systems. You can also view logs related to the operations performed using the host. To do this choose OperationsAdvanced OperationsHosts.

You can manage hosts in the landscape. You use this to view information about your virtualization landscape and execute operations, for example, virtualization managers and virtual hosts. To do this choose Operations & MaintenanceAdvanced OperationsVirtualization.

The following are examples of executable operations:

  • Suspend or activate hosts.

  • Suspend guest operating systems.

Viewing Storage Information

Perform Standard Operations

Business Scenario

In the following exercise, you will learn how to do basic landscape management tasks like the starting and stopping of SAP systems and relocating SAP systems to do maintenance tasks like Operating System (OS) updates on original hosts and switching back afterwards. You will get to know how inter-system dependencies between different SAP systems influence your operations as well as how intra-system dependencies influence operations on SAP instance level. Furthermore, you’ll create operation templates, which can be scheduled for repetitive operations or can be used to provide predefined operations to your SAP system administrators.

Exercise Options

You can perform this exercise in two ways:

  1. Start the exercise. From the entry screen, choose Start Tutorial to watch the simulation.
  2. Start the exercise. From the entry screen, choose Open PDF Document. This document contains all required steps to perform this exercise in your own system.

Perform Standard Operations - Part 1

Perform Standard Operations - Part 2

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