Modeling Energy Flows


After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

  • Model the energy flows in your production to define the allocation of monthly energy consumption to the manufactured products

Models of Energy Flows

The energy flow model is the basis for the emission calculation it links all energy related elements like energy carriers, energy source, facilities with the resources replicate from the ERP system.


The calculation of Scope 1 (direct emissions) and Scope 2 (indirect emissions – related to purchased electricity, steam, heat, and cooling) as per the Greenhouse Gas Protocol is available. This is done by adding information from the energy bills of your utility provider when maintaining the monthly footprint calculation. The required data includes the total consumed quantity of your respective energy sources and their corresponding CO2e values. New improvement includes the integrating the maintenance of Scope 1 and 2 emissions into the Energy Flow Model. Also Scope 3.3 Fuel and Energy related activities is added. Those activities include upstream emissions of purchased fuels or electricity, as well as transmission and distribution (T&D) losses. Check the GHG Protocol for more Information on this scope category.

Model Energy Flows

In the Model Energy Flows application, you can assign energy sources to multiple plants and assign fuel-related emission factors to your energy sources. Those emission factors can be entered manually into the interface or selected from lifecycle assessment (LCA) databases for fuels, referring to the LCA packages maintained in the Manage Emission Factorsapp. Based on your entered data, you can run fuel-based Scope 1 and 3.3 calculations for the footprint inventory scope (stationary combustion), and it enables you to track the respective emission contributions within your overall footprint.

In the same application, you can now also assign energy-related emission factors to the energy source as a basis for Scope 2 and 3.3 calculations, manually or selected from LCA databases for electricity. For Scope 2, you can maintain factors for both the location- and market-based calculation method. The location-based method refers to the grid average, whereas the market-based factors are coming directly from your energy provider or if not available, the residual mix can be taken. By including the different calculation methods, you are confirming to the GHG Protocol.

For Scope 3.3, you can choose the supplier-specific calculation method if you have primary data from your energy provider on the upstream emissions of the purchased energy. Alternatively, you can leverage average data, for example coming from LCA databases.

For more information see Using the Model Energy Flows Application in SAP Help Portal.

Model Energy Flow

The energy flow model forms the basis of, and links all the elements that are relevant for, the emission calculation. It consists of various elements that are combined to the energy flow model of a company.

All these elements can be fully modeled in SAP Sustainability Footprint Management, and when coupled with the ERP resource data is pulled from your company’s backend system, this enables you to calculate your company’s complete carbon footprint.

Earlier you learned how the master data came into the system. Now you see how the other entities relevant for the emission calculation are used in the Sustainability Footprint Management. Those are in this case the external energy sources, meters, a cooling system, and the warehouse.

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